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检疫犬介绍

 一、我们的检疫犬
中国,幅员辽阔,人口众多。丰富多彩的自然环境造就了令人惊叹的景观与文化,数以亿记的农民辛勤劳作只为生存之本和衣食之源。
而我们,需要保护这一切。
依据中国大陆的检验检疫法律规定,国家质检总局及其下属的各级检验检疫机构承担着守护国门生物安全,防止外来有害生物入侵的重要职责。包括活动物、肉制品、新鲜水果、种子等在内16个条目的动植物和动植物产品被禁止携带、邮寄进境。
2001年12月,国家质检总局首先在北京首都国际机场旅检现场应用4只拉布拉多犬。截止2013年6月,我们的检疫犬团队共有包含拉布拉多犬、比格犬和史宾格犬三个主要犬种的共212条犬,分布于57个口岸,从事旅客携带物和邮寄物的检疫查验工作。
二、驯养-苦练本领
我们的检疫犬团队有自驯自养和租用代驯两种类型,北京、江苏、广东等14个直属局采用自驯自养的模式,而黑龙江、上海等6个直属局采用租用代驯模式。但质检总局对这两种模式培养出检疫犬的考核标准是一致的,以充分保证上岗检疫犬的工作能力。
检疫犬温顺的性格、灵敏的嗅觉以及与生俱来的探寻欲都为日后的训练奠定了坚实的基础,全部检疫犬都被训练为被动反应型,示警动作为“坐”。检疫犬的训练周期一般为4个月,包括基础训练、应用性训练和现场实习三个阶段,期间穿插4次考核和现场实习。
当犬只1岁时,它们已经做好了上岗前的全部准备。投入使用后,检疫犬还需每年接受复训以巩固技能。
三、使用-成效显著
实践证明,检疫犬作为一种新型的检疫查验手段,可以弥补传统的人工查验和X光机透视检查等的不足。
在一次次的执勤中,检疫犬屡立奇功,截获的“战利品”有来自疯牛病疫区的天价神户牛肉、带有禽流感病毒的鸭鹅蛋、世界上“最大种子”大实椰子、带有地中海实蝇的释迦水果、价值数十万元的燕窝,检疫犬被形象地誉为“国门新卫士”。 
四、管理-再促发展
随着检疫犬数量的迅速增加,国家质检总局先后制定发布了《检疫犬的训练及使用规程》和《检疫犬使用管理办法(试行)》,对检疫犬的挑选、配置、训练、复训及考核、使用、饲养、健康管理和检疫犬训导员的管理都提出了明确要求。
2011年10月,国家质检总局在北京举办首届全国质检系统检疫犬技能大赛。来自18个直属局的32条检疫犬和它们的训导员共同参加了为期3天的技能大比武,来自上海的拉布拉多犬“可可”技压群雄,最终获得冠军。
五、合作-不只是检疫犬
检疫犬自应用以来,迅速得到了社会公众的认同与喜爱。北京的检疫犬驯养基地先后成为中国农业大学的教学基地和解放军军犬士官学院实习基地。质检总局也积极与美国、加拿大、欧盟、澳大利亚、新西兰、日本、韩国等国家和地区建立了合作交流机制,共同推进检疫犬项目的发展。
时至今日,忠于职守又具亲和力的检疫犬早已超越了它原本承载的查验意义,成为人类与伙伴共同保护家园环境的又一段佳话。
1. Our Detector Dogs
China is a country with vast territory and huge population. The rich and colorful natural environment has created the breathtaking landscape and culture, and hundreds of millions of farmers work hard for the basics of survival and source of food and clothing.
And we are obliged to protect all these.
Pursuant to the relevant inspection and quarantine laws of the Chinese mainland, the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ) and its affiliated inspection and quarantine authorities (CIQs) at various levels undertake the important responsibilities of safeguarding the national border bio-security and protecting against the invasion of exotic pests. 16 categories of animals, plants and animal & plant products including live animals, meat products, fresh fruits and seeds are prohibited from being carried or posted into China.
In December 2001, AQSIQ introduced four Labradors for the first time at the passenger quarantine of Beijing Capital International Airport. As of June 2013, our detector dog team has had a total of 212 dogs in three major breeds, i.e., Labrador, Beagle and Springer Spaniel, which are distributed in over 57 ports conducting quarantine inspection on passengers’ belongings and mails. 
2. Breeding and Training – Building up Skills
Our detector dog team is trained with two approaches, i.e. self-breeding & training and renting for entrusted training, where 14 provincial CIQs such as Beijing, Jiangsu and Guangdong CIQs take the approach of self-breeding and training, while 6 other provincial CIQs such as Hei Longjiang and Shanghai CIQs adopt the mode of renting for entrusted training. In both cases, AQSIQ applies the same assessment criteria to fully ensure the working capabilities of the detector dogs on post. 
The mild temperament, acute sense of smell, and innate desire to explore of the detector dogs has laid a solid foundation for the future training. All detector dogs are trained to be passive alert type, in which they alert by sitting. The training period for a detector dog is generally 4 months, including the three stages of basic training, application training and on-site practice, with 4 examinations and on-site practice conducted in between.
When the dogs turn 1 year old, they have completed all the pre-job preparation. After being put into use, the detector dogs need to receive re-training every year to consolidate their skills.
3. Application – Generating Remarkable Achievements
Practice has proved that detector dogs, as the new means of quarantine inspection, can make up for the deficiencies in the traditional inspection by people and X-ray inspection. 
While performing their duties time and again, the detector dogs have repeatedly made notable achievements, and the captures intercepted include the ultra-expensive Kobe beef from BSE infected area, the duck and goose eggs infected with avian flu virus, sea coconut — the “biggest seed” in the world, custard apple fruit infested with Mediterranean fruit fly, and swallow’s nest worth several hundred thousand RMB Yuan. The detector dogs have been aptly acclaimed as the “New National Border Guard”.
4. Management — Promoting Further Development
With the rapid increase in the number of detector dogs, AQSIQ has successively developed and issued the Specifications for Training and Use of Detector Dogs and Administrative Measures for the Use of Detector Dogs (Tentative), providing explicit requirements for the selection, deployment, training, re-training and examination, use, rearing, health management of the detector dogs and management of detector dog handlers.
In October 2011, AQSIQ held the 1st National Quality Inspection Sector Detector Dog Skill Contest in Beijing, and 32 detector dogs and their handlers from 18 provincial CIQs participated in the 3-day skill contest, and the Labrador “Coco” from Shanghai CIQ outperformed all others and won the championship.
5. Cooperation – Extending beyond Detector Dogs
Since its introduction, detector dog has immediately gained the recognition and favor of the general public. The detector dog breeding and training base in Beijing has successively become the teaching base of China Agricultural University and practice base for the PLA Academy of Military Dogs and Officers. AQSIQ has also actively established cooperation and exchange mechanism with the countries and regions including the US, Canada, EU, Australia, New Zealand, Japan and South Korea, to jointly promote the development of detector dog program.
Today, the detector dog with its dedication and affinity has already gone beyond the significance of inspection it originally bears, and is widely acclaimed for jointly protecting the home environment with its human partner. 

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